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> China > 政治家 > Communist Party of China (CPC) > Deng Xiaoping
邓小平  邓小平 
邓小平 
中国政治家,中国共产党、中国人民解放军和中华人民共和国的主要领导人之一。 | Chinese revolutionary, politician, pragmatist and reformer.
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候选人简介: 

邓小平

中文简介:

 

邓小平(原名邓先圣,后由啟蒙老師改名邓希贤,1904年8月22日-1997年2月19日)出生于中国四川省广安县协兴乡(今广安市广安区协兴镇)牌坊村,他曾是中国共产党、中国人民解放军和中华人民共和国的主要领导人之一。他在1977年召开的中共十一届一中全会上被恢复中共中央政治局常委中共中央副主席等职务,在1978年的中共十一届三中全会上被确认领导地位。1978年至1983年担任全国政协主席,1981年至1989年担任中共中央军委主席,1982年至1987年担任中共中央顾问委员会主任。

 

邓小平一生从来没有担任过中国共产党或中华人民共和国的最高领导职务,但他被普遍认为是中华人民共和国在1978年至1992年间的实际最高领导人,直到去世时他仍保持着影响力。他被中华人民共和国官方称为“马克思主义者,无产阶级革命家、政治家、军事家、外交家,中国共产党第二代中央领导集体核心”。他是“改革开放”及“一国两制”的提议者,中国共产党将以他的政治理念为核心的理论称为“邓小平理论”。他被称为“中国改革开放的总设计师”,其政策几乎影响到了20世纪后期每个中国人,也在相当程度上改变了世界。他曾分别于1978年和1985年两次当选《时代》周刊“年度风云人物”。

 

一国两制

根据中国共产党文献《邓小平理论》,“一国两制”的基本涵义是:在一个中国的前提下,国家的主体坚持社会主义制度;香港、澳门、台湾是中国不可分割的组成部分,它们作为特别行政区保持原有的资本主义制度和生活方式长期不变。至今,“一国两制”应用于香港与澳门。作为这种制度的确立,1984年12月,中英签署《中英联合声明》,中国将恢复对香港行使主权。1986年,中葡签署了《中葡联合声明》。香港与澳门分别于1997年和1999年回归中国。邓小平坚持以和平方式解决台湾问题,并建议在“一个中国”的基础上,举行共两党平等会谈,实行第三次合作。

 

资料来源:维基百科

 

 

ENG:

 

Deng Xiaoping (Pinyin: Dèng Xiǎopíng; 22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997) was a politician and reformist leader of the Communist Party of China who led China towards a market economy. While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (the highest position in Communist China), he nonetheless served as the "paramount leader" of the People's Republic of China from 1978 to 1992. As the core of the second generation leaders Deng shared his power with the two most powerful men after him: Li Xiannian and Chen Yun.

 

Born into a peasant background in Guang'an, Sichuan, Deng studied and worked in France in the 1920s, where he was influenced by Marxism-Leninism. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1923. Upon his return to China he worked as a political commissar in rural regions and was considered a "revolutionary veteran" of the Long March. Following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Deng worked in Tibet and other southwestern regions to consolidate Communist control.

 

Deng was instrumental in China's economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward in the early 1960s. His economic policies, however, were at odds with the political ideologies of Chairman Mao Zedong. As a result, he was purged twice during the Cultural Revolution, but regained prominence in 1978 by outmaneuvering Mao's chosen successor, Hua Guofeng.

 

Inheriting a country fraught with social and institutional woes resulting from the Cultural Revolution and other mass political movements of the Mao era, Deng became the core of the "second generation" of Chinese leadership. He is considered "the architect" of a new brand of socialist thinking, having developed Socialism with Chinese characteristics and led Chinese economic reform through a synthesis of theories that became known as the "socialist market economy". Deng opened China to foreign investment, the global market and limited private competition. He is generally credited with developing China into one of the fastest growing economies in the world for over 30 years and raising the standard of living of hundreds of millions of Chinese.

 

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6th November 08

updated: 2013-01-23

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