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传记 温家宝

> China > 政治家 > Communist Party of China (CPC) > Wen Jiabao
  温家宝   温家宝
  温家宝
中国共产党和中华人民共和国的主要领导人之一,曾任第十六至十七届中共中央政治局常委、中华人民共和国国务院总理。 / The sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China (2003-2013).
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温家宝 传记

中文简介温家宝(1942年9月15日-),天津人,中国政治家。中国共产党和中华人民共和国的主要领导人之一,曾任第十六至十七届中共中央政治局常委、中华人民共和国国务院总理。

温家宝早年毕业于天津南开中学、北京地质学院,后分配至甘肃省从事地质工作,后经推荐进入中央地矿部党委工作。随后在胡耀邦、赵紫阳、江泽民三任中共中央总书记任内,分别担任了中共中央办公厅副主任和主任的职务。1993年,晋升为中央政治局候补委员,开始参与中央的经济和农业工作;1998年在朱镕基任职总理期间,出任主管农业和金融工作的国务院副总理。2002年11月,在中共第十六届一中全会上,温家宝当选为九位中共中央政治局常委之一,进入中共最高领导层,2007年10月获得连任。2003年3月,在第十届全国人大第一次会议上,被任命为国务院总理;2008年3月,获得连任。

此外,温家宝还兼任中央机构编制委员会、国家国防动员委员会、国家能源委员会主任,中共中央财经领导小组、国务院西部地区开发领导小组组长等职。

 

进入中央

1985年,温家宝作为党工干部,在中共中央总书记胡耀邦任内出任中共中央办公厅副主任;一年后,晋升为主任。1987年在中共十三大后,温家宝进入中共中央高层;并先后以中共中央书记处候补书记和中共中央政治局候补委员、中央书记处书记的身份,兼任中央办公厅主任、及中央直属机关工委书记。赵紫阳继任中共中央总书记后,仍任命其为中共中央办公厅主任。

1989年5月(八九民运中期),部分学生于天安门前开始绝食抗议。据《李鹏六四日记》记载,5月下旬,时任中共中央总书记的赵紫阳为抵制军队戒严,决定依照《中华人民共和国宪法》将事件移交给全国人大常委会解决,为此赵紫阳要求中共中央办公厅立即电传在美国访问的全国人大常委会委员长万里回国;而温家宝并未执行命令,将电报提交中共中央政治局常委会否决,从而为延缓万里回国和调集军队戒严起了关键作用。5月20日凌晨4时许,温家宝以中共中央办公厅主任的身份,陪同时任中共中央总书记的赵紫阳到天安门广场劝慰学生停止绝食活动。学运不久后演变为六四事件,赵紫阳因为在这场学生运动中的表现受到了党内谴责并被撤职;而温家宝并没有受到影响,继续担任中央办公厅主任直到1993年。1993年,开始负责农业和农村工作,出任中共中央农村工作领导小组副组长。

 

第九届副总理时期

1998年,出任国务院副总理、中央金融工委书记;主管农业、金融、科学技术、防汛救灾、城镇建设等工作。1998年中国水灾,时任副总理的温家宝在前线抗灾。

 

第十届总理时期

2003年3月,第十届全国人民代表大会第一次会议上,温家宝被任命为国务院总理。温家宝就任总理以后,对中国经济制定、修改了大量政策,其中包括取消农业税;并将农业生产回归首要支柱地位。自2004年至2009年,中央一号文件连续六次聚焦农业发展与农村改革。2006年,国务院在全国范围内免除农业税,并在贫困地区推行免费义务教育及相应农村改革。然而,温家宝当政时期,中国大陆的物价在不断上涨,但粮价一直保持平稳,一斤小麦的价格还不如矿泉水值钱,即便中国国务院有粮食直补政策,但农药化肥等农资价格的飙升使农民很少能从直补政策和免税政策中受益。

2003年,正值SARS事件期间,温家宝主持国务院进行救灾抢救。其曾亲自访问过当时被视为重灾区的香港淘大花园E座以及一些病人。2004至2005年,全国范围出现“电荒”现象,之后温家宝采取了措施,最终“电荒”现象有所缓解。2005年,中华人民共和国国务院颁布了《国务院关于鼓励支持和引导个体私营等非公有制经济发展的若干意见》(即“非公有制经济三十六条”),保护及支持非公有制经济。2006年,温家宝就任国务院总理期间,查处了上海社保基金挪用案和时任中共上海市委书记的陈良宇。对于处理陈良宇腐败问题的背后力量,明镜新世纪杂志刊文称,这是江泽民在清理门户,温家宝则是借此机会向挑战他权威的陈良宇复仇。

2007年2月26日,新华社罕有地发表以他个人名义署名的《关于社会主义初级阶段的历史任务和我国对外政策的几个问题》的5000字政策性宣示文章,指出“科学、民主、法制、自由、人权,并非资本主义所独有,而是人类在漫长的历史进程中共同追求的价值观和共同创造的文明成果。”。但遭到政协副主席、社科院院长陈奎元在社科院改革座谈会上的批评。

2003年,温家宝推行国家宏观调控政策:收拢土地放贷,抬高土地价格。但是他亦颁布国务院18号文件《国务院关于促进房地产市场持续健康发展的通知》,突然将房地产业规划成“支柱产业”,导致中国房地产泡沫的疯狂滋长,仅仅几年内,房价暴涨5到10倍。截至2009年年底,北京、上海等一线城市的均价已从其初任上的4000元左右疯涨到了2万人民币一平米。

外交方面,2005年温家宝访问印度,宣布与印度建立“面向和平与繁荣的战略伙伴关系”。应温家宝邀请,印度总理辛格于2008年1月回访中国。在2007年4月10日到13日,他到日本进行国事访问,是次行动被称为“融冰之旅” 并在日本立命馆大学切磋棒球技艺。发表了中日两国承认彼此为“战略互惠”关系的联合新闻公报;并首次与明仁天皇进行会谈。

 

第十一届总理时期

温家宝被2008年3月第十一届全国人民代表大会第一次会议决定连任国务院总理。2008年1月,中国南方地区受到大面积雪灾袭击(见2008年中国雪灾),温家宝多次往返灾区,组织抗灾工作;并亲赴滞留上万人的湖南长沙火车站,向民众道歉。

2008年5月12日,四川省汶川县发生里氏8.0级的特大地震灾害。温家宝于当天乘专机抵达灾区都江堰市指挥救援,由中央委派出任抗震总指挥。此后的5天里,其深入重灾地探望灾民,期间手臂曾受轻伤。在巡视期间,他多次强调了拯救生命的重要性,并极力安抚受困群众,受到了人民的赞扬。2008年9月,中国发生毒奶粉事件。温家宝指责奶粉企业没有良心,并向公众道歉。 此后国务院批准国家质量监督检验检疫总局局长李长江辞呈,八位地方领导人撤职免职。同时颁布《乳品质量安全监督管理条例》,以保证乳业质量安全。 温家宝说:“中国发现这个问题没有丝毫掩盖,我们坦诚面对,而且勇敢加以解决。”但其实是政府官员早在奥运之前就得知此事并一直加以隐瞒,“温家宝的说法并不符合事实”。

2008年9月30日,温家宝在世界经济论坛接受访问,记者拿出当时任中央办公厅主任的温家宝于1989年天安门事件中陪同时任中共中央总书记赵紫阳看望学生的照片,并询问温家宝从中学到了什么时,温家宝回答说:“中国在经济改革的同时亦需要政治改革,因为我们的发展需要全面的发展,改革亦需要全方位的改革”。2010年4月15日,温家宝在《人民日报》上发文悼念胡耀邦,并表示铭记胡耀邦生前的教诲:“领导干部一定要亲自下基层调查研究,体察群众疾苦,倾听群众呼声,掌握第一手材料”。2010年8月21日,深圳经济特区建立30周年,温家宝发表讲话,提到违背人民的意志,只会是死路一条。“必须永远牢记,只有坚持推进改革开放,国家才有光明前途。我们要头脑清醒、明辨是非,坚定信念、增强信心。要继续解放思想,大胆探索,不能停滞,更不能倒退。停滞和倒退不仅会葬送30多年改革开放的成果和宝贵的发展机遇,窒息中国特色社会主义事业的勃勃生机,而且违背人民的意志,最终只会是死路一条。”2010年12月26日上午,温家宝总理在中央人民广播电台中国之声直播间表示,要使人民生活得更有尊严,第一就是要保障每一个人享有宪法和法律所给予的自由和权利;第二,就是无论职业不同、财产不同、民族不同、宗教信仰不同,每一个人都完全平等,特别是在法律面前完全平等;第三,要使社会更加公平,特别要关注那些弱势群体、残疾人、艾滋病人,使他们能够有尊严地生活;第四,就是要尊重每一个人的人格,包括犯错误的人,以至犯罪的人都要尊重他们的人格。2011年,温家宝在夏季达沃斯论坛表示:“一个执政党最重要的任务就是要依照宪法和法律办事,并且严格在宪法和法律范围内活动,这就需要改变以党代政,把权力绝对化和权力过分集中的现象。为此,必须改革党和国家的领导制度。” 温家宝第二任总理任期时,中国大陆的物价普遍上涨,但粮价一直保持平稳。

外交方面,2009年10月4日至6日,应朝鲜劳动党中央和朝鲜政府邀请,对朝进行正式友好访问,并参加有关中朝两国建交六十周年的庆祝活动。这是自1991年李鹏访朝后,中国政府总理十八年来的首次访问。朝鲜方面除了安排数十万平壤市民夹道欢迎外,朝鲜最高领导人金正日也亲自到机场迎接。温家宝在抵朝首日即签订多项经济援助协议。韩联社认为,这次援朝项目大约价值2000万美元。官方表示,这次访问在深化了中朝传统友谊的同时,继续为推动朝鲜半岛无核化进行了努力。金正日则表示,“愿视朝美会谈情况,进行包括六方会谈在内的多边会谈”。

此外,温家宝还特意到位于平安南道桧仓郡的中国人民志愿军烈士陵园,凭吊在抗美援朝战争中战死的中国士兵,其中也包括毛岸英墓。温家宝这是继周恩来总理之后,第二位前往扫墓的中国高层领导人。

2012年3月14日,温家宝在中国“两会”后的记者发布会上针对王立军事件表态说:“……现任重庆市委和市政府必须反思,并认真从王立军事件中吸取教训……”这是王立军事件发生后,中共最高层领导人的表态。在同一个记者会上,温家宝表示,“因能力所限,再加上体制等各方面的原因,我的工作还有许多不足。虽然没有因为不负责任而造成任何一件事情上的失误,但是作为国家最高行政机关的负责人,对于我在任职期间中国经济和社会所发生的问题,我都负有责任。为此,我感到歉疚”。温总理谈到:“在最后一年,我将像一匹负轭的老马,不到最后一刻绝不松套。努力以新的成绩弥补我工作上的缺憾,以得到人民的谅解和宽恕”。 “我秉承‘苟利国家生死以,岂因祸福避趋之’的信念,为国家服务整整45年,我为国家、人民倾注了我全部的热情、心血和精力,没有谋过私利。我敢于面对人民、面对历史。知我罪我,其惟春秋。”

2012年11月20日,温家宝在召开中共十八大,卸任中共中央政治局常委后,在泰国华人商会总部发表重要讲话,表示他还有几个月即退休了,归隐林泉,但“总觉得似乎还有很多事情还没有做完,还有很多事情还没有办好”;并引用屈原在《离骚》中的名句“亦余心之所善兮,虽九死其尤未悔”、“伏清白以死直兮,固前圣之所厚”表达心声,说明:为了追求真理,即使死九次也不后悔,为了自己的清白即使死也要死得诚实和正直。

 

影响与评价 - 正面

温家宝在当选首次担任总理的期间,因为一系列“穿了十年的羽绒服”、“一双被粘合过多次的双星牌旅游鞋”、“面对矿工遗孤总理落泪”、“深入井下同吃盒饭” 等事迹获得了大量民众支持,比如中国政府人民网组织了“什锦八宝饭”粉丝团,并发行证书。开通四天超过六万网民注册。

而身为中国政府首脑的温家宝在全球亦具有重要影响力。2006年,美国《时代杂志》评选温家宝为全球一百位最具影响力人士之一。2009年,美国广播公司选出10名自2000年来改变美国经济的人物,温家宝成为榜上唯一的外国人。位在美国纽约的政治经济顾问公司“欧亚集团”(Eurasia Group),于1月19日公布2010年“最值得关注的全球十大领导人”,中国国务院总理温家宝名列首位,美国总统奥巴马紧随其后。美国《新闻周刊》于同年8月16日列举出十名赢得各界尊重的国家政府领袖,中国总理温家宝获赞扬为“人民公仆”( Man of the People)2010年10月18日,温家宝获选为美国《时代杂志》亚洲版的封面人物,标题是《温的世界》(Wen's World)。在美国《福布斯》杂志公布的2011年全球最具权力人物排行榜中,温家宝排名十四。

炎黃春秋雜誌社長杜導正表示,2010年九月中南海進行了一場有關「政改」的辯論,但「左派集體壓過來,溫總迅速被孤立。」事實上,並非所有人都抱持反對意見,只是有些人不敢勇敢站出來,行動左顧右盼。杜導正形容,當時的情景就跟1959年中共中央政治局在江西廬山召開擴大會議時,當時的國防部長彭德懷致函毛澤東,歷數大躍進弊端後,被孤立時一模一樣。中國總理溫家寶這幾年致力於政治改革,無奈黨內多半抱持反對意見,讓他這條路走得相當艱辛。杜導正強調,相信溫家寶總理能頂住壓力、屹立不搖,但要看到大陸民主的到來,還需要一段時間。

2012年,荣获美国国际码头工人协会颁发的“美国工人最佳朋友奖”。

中央民族大学教师、极左派理论家张宏良揭批温家宝,说温家宝“身为共产党和共和国高层领导人,在任期间没有唱过一首红歌,没有去过一个红色景点,没有引用过一句红色语录,没有瞻仰过一次开国领袖,从侧面显示了温的开明形象。

 

负面

温家宝任总理期间,没能继续前任总理朱镕基的经济改革方案,没能纠正中国经济发展方式,致使国有经济继续扩大、各地区发展落差和贫富差距增加、农民农田被剥夺,企业家和官僚经由土地买卖和房地产投机的暴利方式致富,同时土地和水的毒化、空气的污染均扩大。

温家宝在欧洲访问时说,民主和自由的普世价值不仅仅是西方文明独有,也是人类文明的共同成就,但是,他未能推动中国民主自由的发展。

 

趙紫陽相關

因六四事件被软禁的前中共中央总书记赵紫阳在2004年与姚监复的谈话中指出温家宝和胡锦涛都是好人,但不可能有大的作为,姚监复问赵紫阳原因何在,赵紫阳回答说,因为他们都是我们(党)培养出来的人。

在1989年的天安门六四事件中,温家宝被指劝阻时任中共中央总书记赵紫阳召开中共中央政治局会议,并且拒绝赵紫阳要求其给正在加拿大和美国访问的时任全国人大委员长万里发电报,召万里提前回国的的批示。温家宝的政治品格,因此备受质疑。胡耀邦遗孀李昭则认为温是党内第一大投机分子,前任总理朱镕基曾怒斥温是最大伪君子,《污点名人》此书已被大陆出版机构查封。

 

任職总理或副总理期间

温家宝在总理任期内,亦有部分负面评论。包括温家宝被部分媒体人和网民戏称为“影帝”。在Google搜索网站上则有超过30万以上的“温家宝 影帝”页面。2010年,余杰出版《中國影帝溫家寶》,向「那些對溫家寶抱有幻想的海內外人士當頭棒喝」。但有民主人士认为余杰在對中國政治人物的批判目標上,給人一種欺善怕惡,甚至別有用心的感覺,表示:“溫家寶在中共高層是相對溫和、相對親民的一位政治人物,溫家寶在民生方面關注弱勢群體,多次為中國民主大聲呼籲,儘管做的還不夠完善,但相對其他高層對老百姓的態度,則明顯是矮子裡的將軍。奇怪的是,余杰一不攻擊鉗制輿論的李長春,二不批評破壞法制、鐵腕鎮壓異見人士、維權民眾和信仰團體的政法委書記周永康。卻對溫家寶總理咬住不放,連續不斷 寫文章、出書羞辱溫總為“影帝” 余杰还宣称温家宝根本不是真正意义上的改革派,是靠出卖赵紫阳才获得升迁的。

中国的资深记者、自由撰稿人高瑜认为温家宝是一个口头空谈改革的人物,她还说温家宝担任中国副总理期间,朱镕基一再催促其取消农业税,但一直拖到2005年才取消。另一方面,温家宝当政时期,物价居高不下,房价更是成倍上涨,受国家控制的粮价却基本保持不变,农业部经管司副司长黄延信直言这样的价格不合理,这对农民不公平。

2008年3月,第十一届全国人大闭幕时温家宝在记者会上回答记者有关胡佳受审一案时回应,“中国是法治国家,这些问题都会依法加以处理”,并承诺尽快施行公民权利与政治权利国际公约。对于此事,有媒体评论他在公然撒谎和表演作秀。

2011年7月,甬台温铁路列车追尾事故发生后,温家宝解释未能及时赶到事故现场的原因时称:“我想如实地跟大家讲,我生病了,11天了,在病床上,今天(28日)医生才勉强允许我出行。”,但此种讲法受到网民质疑,因为在他所声称的这11天病期中并沒有一直在病床上,而是在北京出席过多场公开活动。

2011年10月28日,香港《東方日報》發表文章對溫家寶的執政能力提出質疑,溫家寶是地質專業出身,經濟不是他的特長,另外,溫家寶也缺乏基層工作經驗,升爲總理后由溫家寶領導的政府所制定的經濟政策忽冷忽熱,並為既得利益集團左右,使中國的經濟一團亂另外,香港中文大學財務學講座教授郎咸平2011年10月22日在沈阳对学员的培训中指责向某位中央领导不懂经济,有媒体认为这位中央领导指温。

 

家族财富

温家宝被称保护马明哲在平安保险大肆侵吞国家资产,其子温云松化名郑建源获得了几十亿的财富。

此外博讯网宣称,温家宝的部分丑闻是薄熙来蓄意捏造散布的。 但也有人称温家宝是“影帝”。

纽约时报记者David Barboza(张大卫)2012年10月25日发表《Billions in Hidden Riches for Family of Chinese Leader(总理家人隐秘的财富)》一文,曝光温家宝家族的巨额财富,文章用大量的数据和图片介绍了温家宝的家人,包括他的母亲、儿子、女儿、弟弟,在温家宝任总理期间变得相当富有,至少累积了27亿美元的财富;其家人投资的领域涉及银行、珠宝、旅游景点、电讯公司、基础设施项目等。

从纽时发表记录显示,David Barboza曾与纽时驻北京记者黄安伟(Edward Wong)多次合作为温家宝的政治对手薄熙来之子薄瓜瓜辩护,称薄瓜瓜的红色法拉利传闻的细节不符合。

2007年11月2日,中國時報報導溫家寶妻子張培莉酷愛珠寶,曾向台灣珠寶商買珠寶,一出手就是單價6524萬元新台幣一條的寶石項鏈(合人民幣1400萬元),台湾中天新闻亦有类似报道,但该次电视报道十分含糊,起初疑为谣言,后被加拿大《万维读者网》记者采访台商后证实,《纽约时报》记者亦有类似证实。

 

家庭

妻子张培莉,地质学家、珠宝鉴定专家;曾任戴梦得公司老板。温家宝夫妇育有一子温云松及一女温如春。

儿子温云松,曾留学美国,现任中国卫星通信集团董事长;曾任电信IT公司优创科技(Unihub)的总裁,新天域资本创始人,此外他创办的私募基金新天域资本公司管理几十亿美元,投资人为美国摩根大通、瑞士瑞银、新加坡淡马锡控股公司和德意志银行等20多家国际知名的机构。温云松妻子是杨小萌,持有联通优势科技有限公司股份与平安保险公司股份合计约4.1亿美元。

女儿温如春,女婿刘春航任职于中国银监督会。

祖父温瀛士,生于1895年2月,卒于1960年2月。温瀛士曾任天津县区督学和天津民立小学校长,叔公温赢阶担任天津一间公立学校校长,父亲温刚在“天津第33中学”教地理,母亲杨秀兰在小学教语文,家中生活殷实。溫氏家族世居天津市郊北辰区宜興埠鎮的溫家胡同8號,相傳溫家先祖6代人都居住在此。1948年底,温家宝一家迁往天津市区。温家宝的名字是其祖父温瀛士起的。

宜兴埠温家是当地的名门望族,在清代中叶合族300余口,名人有咸丰三年(1853)武状元温长涌,山东登州总兵温长溥,新疆都督温世霖,日伪天津特別市市長溫世珍等。

温祖上是从山西移居并认祖归宗投靠天津宜兴埠温家,但并没有直接的血缘关系。温世霖资助温瀛士开办“宜兴埠普育女学堂”,并亲任董事长,这些费用全部出自温世霖家。

 

渊源

 

 

ENG: Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade. In his capacity as Premier, Wen was regarded as the leading figure behind Beijing's economic policy. From 2002 to 2012, he held membership in the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, the country's de facto top power organ, where he was ranked third out of nine members.

Wen has a professional background in geology and engineering. He holds a postgraduate degree from the Beijing Institute of Geology, where he graduated in 1968. He was subsequently sent to Gansu province for geological work, and remained in China's hinterland regions during his climb up the bureaucratic ladder. He was transferred to Beijing to work as the Chief of the Party General Office between 1986 and 1993, and accompanied Party General Secretary Zhao Ziyang to Tiananmen Square during the 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests. In 1998, he was promoted to the post of Vice Premier under Premier Zhu Rongji, his mentor, and oversaw the broad portfolios of agriculture and finance.

Since taking office as Premier of the State Council in 2003, Wen, along with President Hu Jintao, has been a key part of the fourth generation of leadership in the Communist Party of China. Soft-spoken and known for his strong work ethic, Wen has been one of the most visible members of the incumbent Chinese administration, and has been dubbed "the people's premier" by both domestic and foreign media.

Described as having a commoner background and a populist approach to policy, Wen's domestic agenda marked a considerable shift from the previous administration. Instead of concentrating on GDP growth in large cities and rich coastal areas, Wen advocated for a more balanced approach in developing China's hinterland regions, and advancing policies considered more favourable towards farmers and migrant workers. Internationally, Wen played a key role in China's response to the global financial crisis and subsequent stimulus program.

 

Early life and rise to power

A native of Beichen District, Tianjin, Wen Jiabao went to the Nankai High School from which his predecessor premier Zhou Enlai graduated. He joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in April 1965 and entered the work force in September 1967.

Wen has a background in engineering and holds a post-graduate degree from the Beijing Institute of Geology. He studied geomechanics in Beijing and began his career in the geology bureau of Gansu province. From 1968–1978, he presided over the Geomechanics Survey Team under the Gansu Provincial Geological Bureau and head of its political section. Wen succeeded in office, rising as chief of the Gansu Provincial Geological Bureau and later as Vice-minister of Geology and Mineral Resources.

Wen was "discovered" by then-General Secretary Hu Yaobang, and joined the ranks of the Central Committee and Politburo. There was some public speculation after 1989 over whether Wen was closer to Hu Yaobang or Zhao Ziyang, but Wen implicitly confirmed that he was a protégé of Hu by the release of his 2010 article, "Recalling Hu Yaobang when I return to Xingyi". After Wen was promoted to work in Beijing, he served as Chief of the Party's General Affairs Office, an organ that oversaw day-to-day operations of the party's leaders. He remained in the post for eight years.

Wen has built a network of patronage during his career. Throughout this period Wen was said to be a strong administrator and technocrat, having earned a reputation for meticulousness, competence, and a focus on tangible results. Outgoing Premier Zhu Rongji showed his esteem for Wen by entrusting him from 1998 with the task of overseeing agricultural, financial and environmental policies in the office of Vice-Premier, considered crucial as China prepared to enter the World Trade Organization. Wen served as Secretary of the Central Financial Work Commission from 1998 to 2002. By the end of the 1990s Wen and Zhang Peili were the main investor and founder of Ping An Insurance, which was established with the help of Hong Kong tycoon Cheng Yu-tung's family through real estate firm New World Development.

 

Survival of Tiananmen purge

Wen's most significant political recovery occurred after accompanying Zhao on his visit to students demonstrating in Tiananmen Square in 1989. Unlike Zhao, who was purged from the party days later for "grave insubordination" and lived under house arrest in Beijing until his death in January 2005, Wen survived the political aftermath of the demonstrations. Wen Jiabao is the only Chief of the Party's General Affairs Office to have served under three General Secretaries: Hu Yaobang, Zhao Ziyang, and Jiang Zemin.

 

First-term Premiership

Wen entered the Politburo Standing Committee, China's highest ruling council, in November 2002, ranked third out of nine members. During the transition of authority as Hu Jintao assumed the presidency in March 2003, Wen's nomination as premier was confirmed by the National People's Congress with over 99% of the delegates' vote. After taking over as Premier, Wen oversaw the continuation of economic reforms and has been involved in shifting national goals from economic growth at all costs to growth which also emphasizes more egalitarian wealth, along with other social goals, such as public health and education. Wen's broad range of experience and expertise, especially cultivated while presiding over agricultural policies under Zhu Rongji has been important as the "fourth generation" sought to revitalize the rural economy in regions left out by the past two decades of reform. In addition, the Chinese government under Wen has begun to focus on the social costs of economic development, which include damage to the environment and to workers' health. This more comprehensive definition of development was encapsulated into the idea of a xiaokang society.

Initially regarded as quiet and unassuming, Wen is said to be a good communicator and is known as a "man of the people." Wen has appeared to make great efforts to reach out those who seem left out by two decades of stunning economic growth in rural and especially western China. Unlike Jiang Zemin and his protégés on the Politburo Standing Committee, who form the so-called "Shanghai clique", both Wen and Hu hail from, and have cultivated their political bases, in the vast Chinese interior. Many have noted the contrasts between Wen and Hu, "men of the people", and Jiang Zemin, the flamboyant, multilingual, and urbane former mayor of Shanghai, the country's most cosmopolitan city.

Like Hu Jintao, whose purported brilliance and photographic memory have facilitated his meteoric rise to power, Wen is regarded as well-equipped to preside over a vast bureaucracy in the world's most populated and perhaps rapidly changing nation. In March 2003, the usually self-effacing Wen was quoted as saying, "The former Swiss ambassador to China once said that my brain is like a computer", he said. "Indeed, many statistics are stored in my brain."

Mild-tempered and conciliatory, especially compared to his predecessor, the tough, straight-talking Zhu Rongji, Wen's consensual management style has enabled him to generate a great deal of good will, but has also created some opponents who are in support of tougher policy decisions. Notably, Wen was widely known to have clashed with then-Shanghai party chief Chen Liangyu over the central government's policies.

Wen was involved in two major episodes involving public health. In early 2003, he was involved in ending the official inaction over the SARS crisis. On 1 December 2004, he became the first major Chinese official to publicly address the problem of AIDS, which has devastated parts of Yunnan and Henan and threatens to be a major burden on Chinese development. Since May 2004, Wen made various visits to communities devastated by AIDS, trips shown prominently on national media. By showing these actions, Wen displayed an effort to reverse years of what many activists have described as a policy of denial and inaction. Furthermore, Wen is concerned about the health and safety of previous drug addicts; since March 2004, Wen had visited several drug addict treatment facilities in southern China and addressed the issue to the patients in person, recognizing that AIDS is more likely to be spread by drug abuse and the reuse of hypodermic syringes than by sexual contact.

Wen was known to conduct visits to relatively poor areas of China's countryside randomly to avoid elaborate preparations to appease officials and hide the real situation, which is done often in China. At committee meetings of the State Council, Wen made it clear that the rural wealth disparity problem must be addressed. Along with General Secretary Hu Jintao, the government focused on the "Three Rural Issues", namely, agriculture, the countryside, and farmers, and emphasized these core areas as requiring further work and development. The Hu-Wen administration abolished the thousand year old agricultural tax entirely in 2005, a bold move that significantly changed the rural economic model. But despite these initiatives, Wen has been criticized for allowing the urban-rural gap to actually increase during his tenure. Like Zhu Rongji, Wen is generally seen as a popular communist official with the Chinese public. His attitude is seemingly sincere and warm, triggering comparisons with former premier Zhou Enlai. Wen spent Chinese New Year in 2005 with a group of coal miners in a Shanxi coal mine. To many, Wen has gained the image of being the "people's premier", a populist, and an ordinary Chinese citizen who knows and understands ordinary people's needs. In an annual meeting of the Chinese Authors Association, Wen spoke for over two hours to the delegates without looking at script. To foreign media, Wen was also the highest figure in the Chinese government to give free press conferences, often facing politically sensitive and difficult questions regarding subjects such as Taiwan Independence, Tibetan independence and human rights.

In December 2003, Wen visited the United States for the first time. During the trip, Wen was able to get President George W. Bush to issue what many saw as a mild rebuke to the then President of the Republic of China (Taiwan), Chen Shui-bian. Wen has also been on visits to Canada and Australia, mostly on economic issues. Wen also visited Japan in April 2007 in what was termed the "de-thawing journey", where he characterized the relationship between the Asian powers as for "mutual benefit". He also met with Emperor Akihito and played baseball.

On 15 March 2005, after the anti-secession law was passed, by a majority of 2,896 to nil, with two abstentions by the National People's Congress, Wen said: "We don't wish for foreign intervention, but we are not afraid of it." as an allusion to the United States' stance on Taiwan. That earned him a long round of applause that was rare even by Chinese standards.

On 5 March 2007, Wen announced plans to increase the military budget. By the end of 2007 the military budget rose 17.8 percent from the previous year's 45 billion dollars, creating tension with the United States.

There were rumours about Wen's retirement and reputed clashes with former Shanghai party chief Chen Liangyu before the party's 17th Party Congress. Some sources suggested that Wen would ask to retire due to fatigue. Ultimately, Wen stayed on the Premier job, and was responsible for the drafting of the important speech delivered by President Hu Jintao outlining China's direction in the next five years.

In January 2008, while during the midst of severe snowstorms, Premier Wen made his way south and visited train stations in Changsha and Guangzhou, addressing the public while calming their mood for long train delays.

 

Second-term Premiership

Wen Jiabao was appointed to a second five-year term as premier on 16 March 2008, leading efforts to cool soaring inflation and showcase the country to the world at the 2008 Summer Olympics. He received fewer votes in favour than he did in 2003, a sign that the premiership can create enemies, even in the mere formalities of China's electoral system. Wen faced grave economic challenges as the world became increasingly affected by the U.S. economic crisis. Social stability and regional activism in China's restive hinterland regions also dominated Wen's policy agenda. On 18 March 2008, during the press conference after the 2008 National People's Congress, Wen toed the government line in blaming supporters of the Dalai Lama for violence in Tibet, and said Chinese security forces exercised restraint in confronting rioting and unrest in the streets of Lhasa. Wen acted as the spokesman of the Chinese government during the 2008 unrest in Tibet and refused to negotiate with the Dalai Lama and his followers, unless they chose to "give up all separatist activities."

 

Personal life and family wealth

Wen Jiabao is married to Zhang Peili, whom he met while working as a government geologist in Gansu. Zhang is a jewellery expert and has played a prominent role in the nation’s diamond trade. She rarely appears with Wen in public. According to a U.S. diplomatic cable posted in Wikileaks, Wen considered divorcing his wife due to being "disgusted" by how she used his name to extract huge commissions in the diamond trade. They have a son, Wen Yunsong, who is CEO of Unihub, a Chinese networking company. The daughter, Wen Ruchun, held shares of a Chinese jewelry company called Gallop. His mother Yang Zhiyun (also known as Yang Xiu’an) owns an investments in Ping An Insurance worth $120 million. In October 2012, The New York Times reported that Wen's relatives have controlled financial assets worth at least US$2.7 billion during his time as Premier. In response, a Chinese government spokesman stated that the report "blackens China's name and has ulterior motives", and the websites of The New York Times were censored in mainland China. Lawyers representing Wen's family also denied the report's content. Wen personally wrote a letter submitted to the Politburo Standing Committee asking for an investigation to the claim and willing to make his family asset public. Professor Zhu Lijia, of the Chinese Academy of Governance, suggest that this is Wen's last try to push the passing of the "Sunshine" law, which require government officials to release their financial information to public. Professor Jean-Pierre Cabestan of Hong Kong's Baptist University questioned the timing of the report and suggested "It looks very much [like] some people close to Bo Xilai are trying to throw mud at the reformists".

Wen is said to have an introverted personality. He has stated that his one regret so far in life was "Never having learned to drive a manual car." Wen is known for his adept use of Chinese poetry to convey political and diplomatic messages, to respond to journalists, or simply to begin a speech.

 

Source

 

 

March 18,2013

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