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传记 习近平

> China > 政治家 > Communist Party of China (CPC) > Xi Jinping
  习近平   习近平
  习近平
中国共产党第十八届中央委员会总书记。 / General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and President of the People's Republic of China
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候选人简介: 

习近平 传记

中文简介:習近平(1953年6月15日-),陕西富平人,出生于北京市,中华人民共和国第五代最高领导人,中国共产党第十八届中央委员会总书记、中央军事委员会主席、中央政治局常务委员会委员(位列第一),中华人民共和国主席、中华人民共和国中央军事委员会主席。

中国共产党称呼现在第五代的中央领导集体为“以习近平同志为总书记的党中央”

 

生平 - 早年经历

習近平是中共元老習仲勋之子。在他出生时,習仲勋已经官至中共中央宣传部部长。習近平10岁那年(1962年)9月,在中共八届十中全会上,中共前领导人康生依据小说《刘志丹》杜撰出“習仲勋、贾拓夫、刘景范反党集团”。習仲勋被撤销党内外一切职务;不久,習被下放到河南洛阳的一家面粉厂劳动;1968年时,習仲勋囚禁獄中,直到文革结束。

1969年1月,15岁的習近平来到陕西省延川县的文安驿公社梁家河大队插隊落戶。后来,習近平还在生产大队担任了中共党支部书记,并在当地构建起第一个沼气村。1975年10月,他受推荐进入清华大学化学工程系基本有机合成专业学習,成为了工农兵学员。

 

步入政界

1979年4月毕业之后,国务院办公厅和中共中央军委办公厅工作;並担任中央军委秘书长耿飚的秘书。1982年3月,出任中共河北省正定县县委副书记;一年后,習近平升任并成为正定县最年轻的县委书记。他在任期间大力推动大包干生产责任制,并向上级反映正定县情况,使得正定县粮食征购任务减少了2000万斤;此外走遍整个乡镇,进行考察,他当初的同事均以“平易近人,温和儒雅,和蔼可亲”形容習近平。

 

地方历练

1985年,習近平南下福建,出任中共厦门市委常委、常务副市长,此后他在福建工作17年。1988年,调任中共福建省宁德市市委书记、宁德军分区党委第一书记,期间惩治官员腐败四百余人,并重点查办福鼎县林增团、宁德地区侨联副主席郑锡煊等腐败要案。1990年,升任中共福州市市委书记、市人大常委会主任。1993年,当选中共福建省委常委、兼任福州市委书记。1996年,習近平晋升省委副书记;1999年,出任福建省副省长、代理省长;2000年,正式当选福建省省长,期间协助中央处理厦门远华案。在福建高层,历经贾庆林、陈明义、宋德福等三任省委书记。

2002年10月,習近平转任浙江省副省长、代省长。同年,在清华大学人文社会学院马克思主义理论与思想政治教育专业在职研究生班获法学博士学位。11月,任中共浙江省委书记;后又兼任浙江省人大常委會主任,他在任期间延续了以前在各地的下级调研習惯;并提出“八八战略”、“五大百亿工程”,重视民生發展和产业结构调整、吸引外资并增强民间资金流动;2006年,浙江省城镇人均可支配收入超过1万8千元人民币,农民人均收入超过7千元人民币,位居中国省级行政区第一名。

2007年3月,習近平被调往上海担任市委书记,接替因上海社保案暂时代理市委书记一职的市长韩正。

 

进入中央

2007年秋举行的中共十七大上,習近平由中央委员进入由9人组成的中共中央政治局常务委员会以及中共中央书记处,当选中央政治局常委,并出任中央书记处书记(负责常务工作)。同年12月,習近平又从原政治局常委曾庆红手中,接过了中共中央党校校长的职务;而他早前的中共上海市委书记职务,则在2007年10月27日由俞正声接替。

2008年3月15日,在第十一届全国人大一次会议上,習近平又当选为中华人民共和国副主席。2010年10月18日中共十七届五中全会决定增补習近平为中共中央军事委员会副主席。2010年10月28日,全国人大常委会表决,决定習近平为中华人民共和国中央军事委员会副主席。 2012年2月13日,習近平对美国进行正式访问。美国当地时间2月14日上午,習近平在白宫会见美国总统奥巴马。

 

第五代最高領導人

从習近平被选为中央政治局常委开始,外界猜测習将是中共中央内定继胡锦涛之后的下一任中共中央总书记。2010年10月,在中共十七届五中全会上被增补为中共中央军委副主席,得到党、国、军相应的职务。

2012年11月15日,在中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会闭幕后随即召开的中共十八届一中全会上,習近平当选新一届中央委员会总书记,并出任中央军事委员会主席执掌军权,成为最高领导人。

2013年3月14日,在第十二届全国人大一次会议第四次全体会议上,习近平以得票超过99%当选为新一任中华人民共和国主席,同时当选国家中央军委主席,李源潮当选国家副主席。

 

观点与政治主张 - 外交

習近平于2009年2月,在墨西哥出席当地华人联谊会时的演讲中,提及

“ 在国际金融风暴中,中国能够基本解决13亿人口的吃饭问题,已经是对全人类最伟大的贡献。 ”

“ 有些吃饱了没事干的外国人,对我们的事情指手划脚。中国一不输出革命,二不输出饥饿和贫困,三不去折腾你们,还有什么好说的。”

演讲结束后,被香港媒体以及网民于海外视频网站公布,立即引来中国互联网对習近平的评议。新闻在新华社等中国官方媒体在刊登此消息几小时后撤除。在中国民间论坛则迅速地传开此消息,对習近平的讲话是否符合民意形成争议。

 

人权

2012年2月14日,習近平于华盛顿出席举欢迎午宴演讲时主动发表关于人权问题时说:“改革开放30多年来,中華人民共和國人权事业取得了有目共睹的巨大成就,但在人权问题上没有最好,只有更好。中華人民共和國人口眾多,区域差异大,发展不平衡,在进一步改善民生和人权状况方面,还面临不少的挑战,中華人民共和國政府将继续从本国国情出发,坚持以人为本,始终把人民愿望和要求放在心上,采取切实有效的政策措施,大力促进社会公平、正义与和谐,推动中国人权事业不断取得新的进展。”

 

党内治理

2012年3月16日,習近平在《求是》党内杂志撰文,强调领导干部要带头“保持党的纯洁性”,表示:“有些干部在市场经济中不能正确对待个人利益,走向腐败堕落,教训极其深刻,坚决要把已经丧失党员资格的蜕化变质分子和腐败分子清除出党。”習近平又强调“必须严格贯彻党的民主集中制原则,不能搞一言堂,不能由个人或少数人说了算,而应该搞群言堂,依靠集体智慧和严格程序来决定。”外界认为習近平传递出“党要管党”,对腐败党员作出了强烈信号。

 

新南巡

相異於前任胡錦濤2002年12月就任中共中央總書記後,選擇國共戰爭最後階段「指揮所」河北省西柏坡為首個出巡地點,習近平2012年12月甫上任總書記後第一站選擇改革開放重地廣東省深圳等地,而非習曾待過6年的中共革命重地延安,外媒對此高度關注。習南下巡視廣東等地五天,習近平在行程中多次釋放強調「力推改革堅持開放」、「要有新开拓」,並形容改革開放是「決定中國命運的關鍵一招」。習近平南巡行經路線,和20年前的1992年1月鄧小平南巡路線大致相同,由改革派要角中央政治局委员汪洋陪同,並親訪鄧南巡時期的地方老幹部,也被媒體稱為「新南巡」。《紐約時報》認為“新南巡”是「習可能支持更開放政策的一個最強烈信號」。中新社11日采访北京相关专家,专家表示习近平这次广东考察

 

轶闻

習近平喜爱足球。2008年7月考察北京奥运会秦皇岛赛区时,曾看望中国国家女子足球队并获赠球衣。 2009年10月作为中国国家副主席访问德国期间,曾表示“中国有一流的球迷和世界可观的足球市场,但目前水平还比较低,希望可以迎头赶上。” 2012年2月访问爱尔兰都柏林时,曾参观爱尔兰盖尔运动协会总部,并公开展示球技。

 

家庭

習近平的父亲習仲勋是中共元老之一,曾任国务院副总理和全国人大常委会副委员长。母亲齐心,是習仲勋的第二任妻子。習近平曾经两次结婚,前妻柯玲玲,中国外交官柯华之女,两人结婚两三年后,习没有随柯前往英国,随即离婚,离婚时间大概在习离京赴冀前夕。现任妻子彭丽媛是中国著名女高音歌唱家、歌剧表演艺术家,现任总政歌舞团团长,中国音乐家协会副主席。1986年底经人介绍与習近平相识,1987年9月1日两人在厦门結婚,育有一女習明泽。習近平在福建省工作17年,彭丽媛的知名度比較丈夫更高。

習近平独生女習明泽,生于1992年6月27日。中学时就读于杭州外國語學校;2008年汶川大地震时以志愿者的身份前往四川绵竹的汉旺东汽小学,参与抢救伤者、心理辅导的慈善义工。2009年8月,習明泽进入浙江大学外国语学院同声传译专业。2013年1月,亞洲週刊報導習明澤正在美國哈佛大學諗書。

習近平大姐齊橋橋(随母姓)與大姐夫鄧家貴為加籍華人,是北京中民信房地產開發有限公司董事長。二姐齊安安(随母姓),与二姐夫吳龍長居澳洲墨爾本,為澳洲永久居民;亦是深圳大唐移动通信的實際擁有人。弟弟習远平,持有香港永久居民身份證,並持有澳洲永久居民簽證,是现任国际节能环保协会会长。習近平另有一同父异母的哥哥習正宁,系習仲勋与前妻所生之子。

2012年6月底,彭博社刊文披露習近平家族财富引起各方关注。对于这篇报道,多维新闻网指彭博社所报道的習家族的资产跟習近平本人没有关系,这些财产在習近平进入中共中央之前已经持有,有一些是90年代的投资,同时,多维网文章指出習近平曾亲自出面,阻止了国有企业同其姐夫吴龙的一项合同。明镜网发文指出这篇文章在北京市党代会召开之际问世显然是有备而来,并指出彭博社对習近平家族几项资产的关键历史渊源和经过并不了解,所披露的習家族财富数据不完整、不完全、不准确,也没有反映出習家负债的情况,因此其真实性是不可靠的。《纽约时报》发表的文章指出,彭博社在刊出有关習家财产的报道时强调,没有任何证据表明習近平有什么不法行为。而海外的中英文媒体也都提到,无任何证据显示習家有什么贪腐行为。纽约时报还说,尽管習近平的威信很高,但中共内也有一部分反对他的人,希望能利用这类报道阻止其顺利接班,但恐为时已晚。旅美中国作家、政治评论家陈破空在美国之音的电视节目中指出在中共十八大召开之前彭博社做出这类报道是高层权力斗争的结果,質疑是周永康或者江泽民对外放风,出口转内销,借机打压習近平。陈破空指出,薄熙来倒台,是胡温習联手运作的结果,而政治局常委周永康与薄熙来关系亲密,周伺机报复。对于江泽民的嫌疑,陈破空指出民间寄望習近平进行政治改革令江泽民不安,江及时抛出他早就掌握的習家族底细,一可贬损習近平,重创民间期待,二可警告習近平,打消其任何政改念头。

 

渊源

 

 

ENG: Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and the Chairman of the Party Central Military Commission since 2012. He is also the President of the People's Republic of China and the Chairman of the State Central Military Commission since 2013, and is the first-ranked member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), China's de facto top power organ. Xi is now the leader of the Communist Party of China's fifth generation of leadership.

Son of communist veteran Xi Zhongxun (1913–2002), Xi Jinping served mostly in Fujian province in his early career. He was later appointed party chief of the neighboring Zhejiang, and then briefly served as Shanghai's party secretary following the dismissal of Chen Liangyu. Xi was promoted to the central leadership in October 2007, entering the PSC and Secretariat, groomed to become Hu Jintao's successor. Xi is known for his tough stance on corruption and a frank openness about political and market economy reforms.

 

Life and career - Early life

Xi Jinping was born on 15 June 1953 in Beijing and is, by Chinese convention, a native of Fuping County, Shaanxi. His patrilinear ancestral home is at Xiying in Dengzhou, Henan. As a result of his upbringing in the Beijing environ, Xi is the first leader of the Communist Party to speak clear, provincial-accent-free Mandarin. He is the second son of Xi Zhongxun, one of the founders of the Communist guerrilla movement in Shaanxi and former Vice-Premier. At the time, his father served as the head of the Communist Party's propaganda department and later Vice-Chairman of the National People's Congress. His mother was Qi Xin. When Xi was 10, his father was purged and sent to work in a factory in Luoyang, Henan. Xi was 15 when his father was jailed in 1968, during the Cultural Revolution. Without the protection of his father, Xi went to work in Yanchuan County, Shaanxi, in 1969 in Mao Zedong's Down to the Countryside Movement. He later became the Party branch secretary of the production team. When he left in 1975, he was only 22 years old. When asked about this experience later by state television, Xi recalled it saying, "It was emotional. It was a mood. And when the ideals of the Cultural Revolution could not be realised, it proved an illusion."

From 1975 to 1979, Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing's prestigious Tsinghua University. From 1998 to 2002 he studied Marxist theory and ideological education in an "on-the-job" post-graduate programme at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, again at Tsinghua University, and obtained an LLD degree. From 1979 to 1982 he served as secretary for his father's former subordinate Geng Biao, the then vice premier and Secretary-General of the Central Military Commission. This gained Xi some military background. In 1985, as part of a Chinese delegation to study American agriculture, he visited the town of Muscatine, Iowa.

 

Ascent

Xi joined the Communist Youth League in 1971 and the Communist Party of China in 1974. In 1982 he was sent to Zhengding County in Hebei as Deputy Secretary to the CPC Zhengding County Committee, and was promoted in 1983 to Secretary of the CPC Zhengding County Committee. Xi subsequently served in four provinces during his political career: Shaanxi (during the Cultural Revolution, 1969–1975), Hebei (1982–1985), Fujian (1985–2002), and Zhejiang (2002–2007).

Xi held Party positions in the CPC Fuzhou Municipal Committee, and became the president of the Party School in Fuzhou in 1990. In 1999 he was promoted to the Deputy Governor of Fujian, then became Governor a year later. While there he made efforts to attract investment from Taiwan and to boost free market economy. In February 2000 he and provincial Party Secretary Chen Mingyi were called before the top four members of the Party Central Politburo Standing Committee – General Secretary, President Jiang Zemin, Premier Zhu Rongji, Vice-President Hu Jintao and Discipline Inspection secretary Wei Jianxing to explain aspects of the Yuanhua scandal.

In 2002 Xi took up senior government and Party positions in Zhejiang, and eventually took over as party chief after several months as acting Governor, becoming the first-in-charge in the province. Xi was then made an alternate member of the 15th CPC Central Committee and holds the membership of the 16th CPC Central Committee, marking his ascension to the national stage. While in Zhejiang, Xi provided the economic environment which secured growth rates averaging 14% per year. His career in Zhejiang was marked by tough and straightforward stance against corrupt officials, which earned him a name on the national media and drew the attention of China's top leaders.

Following the dismissal of Shanghai Party Chief Chen Liangyu in September 2006 due to a social security fund scandal, Xi was transferred to Shanghai in March 2007 to become the new Party Chief of Shanghai. Xi's appointment to one of the most important regional posts in China was clearly a sign of confidence from the Central Government. While in Shanghai he was careful not to touch any controversial issues while largely echoing the line of the central leadership. Xi's career is notable in that during his regional tenures, he was never implicated in any serious scandals, nor did he face serious political opposition.

 

Joining the Standing Committee and Vice-Presidency

Xi's appointment to the Party Secretary post in Shanghai was seen as a stepping stone for him to become an emerging member of the fifth generation of Chinese leadership. This was solidified by his appointment as a member of the nine-man Politburo Standing Committee at the 17th Party Congress in October 2007. Xi was ranked above Li Keqiang, which made him the most likely candidate for China's next leader. In addition, Xi also held the top-ranking membership of the Communist Party's Central Secretariat. This assessment was further supported at the 11th National People's Congress, Xi was elected as Vice-President of the People's Republic of China on 15 March 2008. Some suggest this was because Xi had kept friendly relations with both Hu Jintao and the other power figure in the central leadership, Zeng Qinghong.

Since his elevation Xi has held a broad range of portfolios. He was put in charge of the comprehensive preparations for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, as well as being the central government's leading figure in Hong Kong and Macau affairs. In addition, he also became the new President of the Central Party School, the cadre-training and ideological education wing of the Communist Party. In the wake of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake, Xi visited disaster areas in Shaanxi and Gansu. Xi made his first foreign visit after his vice presidency to visit North Korea, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Yemen from 17 to 25 June 2008. After the Olympics, Xi was assigned the post of Committee Chair for the preparations of the 60th Anniversary Celebrations of the founding of the People's Republic of China. He was also reportedly at the helm of a top-level Communist Party committee dubbed the 6521 Project, which was charged with ensuring social stability during a series of political sensitive anniversaries in 2009.

Xi is considered to be one of the most successful members of the Crown Prince Party, a quasi-clique of politicians who are descendants of early Chinese revolutionaries. Senior leaders consider Xi to be an emerging figure that is open to serious dialogue about deep-seated market economic reforms and even political reform, although Xi's personal political views are relatively murky. He is generally popular with foreign dignitaries, who are intrigued by his openness and pragmatism. Former Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, when asked about Xi, said he felt he was "a thoughtful man who has gone through many trials and tribulations." Lee also commented: "I would put him in the Nelson Mandela class of persons. A person with enormous emotional stability who does not allow his personal misfortunes or sufferings affect his judgment. In other words, he is impressive". Former U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson described Xi as "the kind of guy who knows how to get things over the goal line." Former Australian Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, commented on October 4, 2012: China's new president and party secretary general, Xi Jinping, (who) has sufficient reformist, party and military background to be very much his own man.

 

Political future

In September 2009, at the Fourth Plenum of the 17th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Xi Jinping was not selected as the Vice-Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) as expected, raising some questions about his succession. Political analyst Cheng Li believed that Xi's failure to secure the CMC promotion was evidence that the Communist Party was developing internal checks and balances, giving way to more sophisticated mechanisms for leadership succession. Xi was officially appointed to the vice-chairmanship on 18 October 2010, a position Hu Jintao once held back in 1999 before taking over the secretaryship and the presidency years later. By 2010, it appeared to be clear that Xi would succeed Hu as General Secretary and President in 2012 and 2013 respectively.

 

Party leader and head of the military

On 15 November 2012, Vice President Xi Jinping was elected to the post of General Secretary of the Communist Party and Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission by the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, making him the top-ranked leader of the Communist Party of China.

Xi was ranked ninth of the 2012 Forbes Magazine's List of The World's Most Powerful People, after taking the office of Party general secretary.

Xi visited Guangdong in his first trip since taking the Party leadership, notably paying tribute to Deng Xiaoping. During his trip, he called for economic reforms and a strong military. Xi launched a series of speeches referring to "The China dream." "This dream can be said to be the dream of a strong nation. And for the military, it is a dream of a strong military," Xi told sailors in December 2012.

 

Presidency

Xi became President, the head of state, on 14 March 2013, in a confirmation vote by the National People's Congress in Beijing. He received 2,952 for, one vote against, and three abstentions. He replaced Hu Jintao, who retired after serving two terms as president. The liberal reformist Li Yuanchao was elected as Xi's Vice President in a a 2839 to 80 vote, becoming the first vice-president not to be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee since Rong Yiren in 1998.

In his new capacity as President, on 16 March Xi expressed support for noninterference in China–Sri Lanka relations amid a United Nations Security Council vote to condemn that country over government abuses during the Sri Lankan Civil War.

On 17 March, Xi and his new ministers arranged a meeting with the chief executive of Hong Kong, CY Leung, confirming his support for Leung. Within hours of his election, Xi discussed cyber security and North Korean issues with American President Barack Obama, who announced the visits of Treasury and State secretaries Jacob Lew and John F. Kerry to China on the following week.

On 17 March, Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari telephoned Xi Jinping and congratulated him on his election as president by the National People’s Congress. President Zardari expressed the hope that the time-tested ties between the two countries would grow from strength to strength during the presidency of Mr Jinping and that efforts for passing on the relationship to the new generations would gain momentum. Xi said his country will continue to support Pakistan's efforts to safeguard its national sovereignty and independence and its efforts to achieve national stability and development.

 

Personal life

Xi first married Ke Lingling, the daughter of Ke Hua, an ambassador to Britain in the early 1980s. Little is known about their marriage other than that it ended in divorce within a few years.

Xi married the famous Chinese singer Peng Liyuan in 1987. Peng Liyuan, a household name in China, was much better known to the public than Xi until his political elevation. The couple frequently lived apart due largely to their separate professional lives. They are sometimes considered China's emerging star political couple. They have a daughter named Xi Mingze, who enrolled as a freshman at Harvard University in the autumn of 2010 under a pseudonym.

Peng described Xi as hardworking and down-to-earth. "When he comes home, I've never felt as if there's some leader in the house. In my eyes, he's just my husband."

Xi was described in a 2011 The Washington Post article by those who know him as "pragmatic, serious, cautious, hard-working, down to earth and low-key." Xi was also described as a good hand at problem solving and "seemingly uninterested in the trappings of high office." He is also known to love Hollywood films like Saving Private Ryan. The Guardian noted that "perhaps more surprisingly" he also praised the independent film maker Jia Zhangke.

In June 2012, Bloomberg reported that members of Xi's extended family have substantial business interests, although there was no evidence that they had been assisted by Xi's political position. The bloomberg.com website was apparently blocked in mainland China in response to the article.

 

Source

 

 

March 19,2013

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